The XRP Ledger uses a consensus algorithm to resolve the double spend problem and choose which transactions to execute in which order. Consensus also governs rules of transaction processing.
Understand the role of consensus in the XRP Ledger.
- Consensus Principles and Rules
The rules and principles of the consensus algorithm that allow users to transfer funds (including fiat currencies, digital currencies and other forms of value) across national boundaries as seamlessly as sending an email.
- Consensus Protections Against Attacks and Failure Modes
Learn how the XRP Ledger Consensus Protocol is protected against various problems and attacks that may occur in a decentralized financial system.
- Invariant Checking
Understand what Invariant Checking is, why it exists, how it works, and what invariant checks are active.
- Negative UNL
Understand how Negative UNL improves the ledger's resilience during partial outages.
- Transaction Queue
Understand how transactions can be queued before reaching consensus.
- About Canceling a Transaction
Understand when and how it's possible to cancel a transaction that has already been sent.
- Transaction Malleability
Be aware of ways transactions could be changed to have a different hash than expected.
Amendments represent new features or other changes to transaction processing. Validators coordinate through consensus to apply these upgrades to the XRP Ledger in an orderly fashion.
- Fee Voting
How validators vote on fees (transaction cost and reserve requirements).
- Consensus Research
Scholarly articles on consensus algorithms and related research.
- Parallel Networks
Understand how test networks and alternate ledger chains relate to the production XRP Ledger.