Consensus Research

Ripple researches both the theoretical and the practical limits of the XRP Ledger's consensus protocols, and explores other ideas in the same space. The following table lists scholarly articles published by Ripple:

Date Title Authors Summary
2018-02-20 Cobalt: BFT Governance in Open Networks MacBrough Introduces a novel atomic broadcast algorithm called Cobalt that allows more flexibility in consensus UNLs.
2018-02-20 Analysis of the XRP Ledger Consensus Protocol Chase, MacBrough A detailed and updated analysis of the XRP Ledger consensus algorithm and its safety and liveness properties.
2014 The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm Schwartz, Youngs, Britto Introduces the consensus algorithm behind the XRP Ledger.