Basic Data Types

Different types of objects are uniquely identified in different ways:

Accounts are identified by their Address, for example "r9cZA1mLK5R5Am25ArfXFmqgNwjZgnfk59". Addresses always start with "r". Many rippled methods also accept a hexadecimal representation.

Transactions are identified by a Hash of the transaction's binary format. You can also identify a transaction by its sending account and Sequence Number.

Each closed Ledger has a Ledger Index and a Hash value. When Specifying Ledgers you can use either one.


Accounts in the XRP Ledger are identified by an address in the XRP Ledger's base58 format. The address is derived from the account's master public key , which is in turn derived from a secret key. An address is represented as a string in JSON and has the following characteristics:

  • Between 25 and 35 characters in length
  • Starts with the character r
  • Uses alphanumeric characters, excluding the number "0" capital letter "O", capital letter "I", and lowercase letter "l"
  • Case-sensitive
  • Includes a 4-byte checksum so that the probability of generating a valid address from random characters is approximately 1 in 2^32

For more information, see Accounts and base58 Encodings.


Many objects in the XRP Ledger, particularly transactions and ledgers, are uniquely identified by a 256-bit hash value. This value is typically calculated as a "SHA-512Half", which calculates a SHA-512 hash from some contents, then takes the first half of the output. (That's 256 bits, which is 32 bytes, or 64 characters of the hexadecimal representation.) Since the hash of an object is derived from the contents in a way that is extremely unlikely to produce collisions, two objects with the same hash can be considered the same.

An XRP Ledger hash value has the following characteristics:

  • Exactly 64 characters in length
  • Hexadecimal character set: 0-9 and A-F.
  • Typically written in upper case.

Note: SHA-512Half has similar security to the officially-defined SHA-512/256 hash function. However, the XRP Ledger's usage predates SHA-512/256 and is also easier to implement on top of an existing SHA-512 function. (As of this writing, SHA-512 support in cryptographic libraries is much more common than for SHA-512/256.)

Hash Prefixes


In many cases, the XRP Ledger prefixes an object's binary data with a 4-byte code before calculating its hash, so that objects of different types have different hashes even if their binary formats are the same. The existing 4-byte codes are structured as three alphabetic characters, encoded as ASCII, followed by a zero byte.

Some types of hash appear in API requests and responses. Others are only calculated as the first step of signing a certain type of data, or calculating a higher-level hash. The following table shows all 4-byte hash prefixes the XRP Ledger uses:

Object Type API Fields Hash Prefix (Hex) Hash Prefix (Text)
Consensus proposal N/A 0x50525000 PRP\0
Ledger Version ledger_hash 0x4C575200 LWR\0
Ledger state data account_state in ledger header 0x4D4C4E00 MLN\0
Ledger data inner node N/A 0x4D494E00 MIN\0
Ledger data inner node (SHAMapv2) N/A 0x494E5200 INR\0
Payment Channel Claim N/A 0x434C4D00 CLM\0
Signed Transaction hash of transactions 0x54584E00 TXN\0
Transaction with metadata N/A 0x534E4400 SND\0
Unsigned Transaction (Single-signing) N/A 0x53545800 STX\0
Unsigned Transaction (Multi-signing) N/A 0x534D5400 SMT\0
Validation vote N/A 0x56414C00 VAL\0
Validator subkey authorization ("validator manifest") N/A 0x4D414E00 MAN\0

Ledger objects IDs are calculated in a similar way, but they use a 2-byte prefix called a "space key" instead of a prefix in the form described here.

Account Sequence

A Sequence number is a 32-bit unsigned integer used to identify a transaction or Offer relative to a specific account.

Every account in the XRP Ledger has a Sequence number, which starts at 1. For a transaction to be relayed to the network and possibly included in a validated ledger, it must have a Sequence field that matches the sending account's current Sequence number. An account's Sequence field is incremented whenever a transaction from that account is included in a validated ledger (regardless of whether the transaction succeeded or failed). This preserves the order of transactions submitted by an account, and differentiates transactions that would otherwise be the same.

Every Offer in the XRP Ledger's decentralized exchange is marked with the sending Account Address and the Sequence value of the OfferCreate transaction that created it. These two fields, together, uniquely identify the Offer.

Ledger Index

A ledger index is a 32-bit unsigned integer used to identify a ledger. The ledger index is also known as the ledger's sequence number. The very first ledger was ledger index 1, and each new ledger has a ledger index 1 higher than that of the ledger immediately before it.

The ledger index indicates the order of the ledgers; the Hash value identifies the exact contents of the ledger. Two ledgers with the same hash are always the same. For validated ledgers, hash values and sequence numbers are equally valid and correlate 1:1. However, this is not true for in-progress ledgers:

  • Two different rippled servers may have different contents for a current ledger with the same ledger index, due to latency in propagating transactions throughout the network.
  • There may be multiple closed ledger versions competing to be validated by consensus. These ledger versions have the same sequence number but different contents (and different hashes). Only one of these closed ledgers can become validated.
  • A current ledger's contents change over time, which would cause its hash to change, even though its ledger index number stays the same. The hash of a ledger is not calculated until the ledger is closed.

Specifying Ledgers

Many API methods require you to specify an instance of the ledger, with the data retrieved being considered up-to-date as of that particular version of the shared ledger. The commands that accept a ledger version all work the same way. There are three ways you can specify which ledger you want to use:

  1. Specify a ledger by its Ledger Index in the ledger_index parameter. Each closed ledger has an identifying sequence number that is 1 higher than the previously-validated ledger. (The Genesis Ledger has sequence number 0)
  2. Specify a ledger by its Hash value in the ledger_hash parameter.
  3. Specify a ledger by one of the following shortcuts, in the ledger_index parameter:
    • validated for the most recent ledger that has been validated by the whole network
    • closed for the most recent ledger that has been closed for modifications and proposed for validation
    • current for the server's current working version of the ledger.

There is also a deprecated ledger parameter which accepts any of the above three formats. Do not use this parameter; it may be removed without further notice.

If you do not specify a ledger, the current (in-progress) ledger is chosen by default. If you provide more than one field specifying ledgers, the deprecated ledger field is used first if it exists, falling back to ledger_hash. The ledger_index field is ignored unless neither of the other two are present.

Note: Do not rely on this default behavior for specifying a ledger; it is subject to change. Always specify a ledger version in the request if you can.


There are two kinds of currencies in the XRP Ledger: XRP, and everything else. There are many differences between the two:

XRP Issued Currencies
Has no issuer. Always issued by an XRP Ledger account
Specified as a string Specified as an object
Tracked in accounts Tracked in trust lines
Can never be created; can only be destroyed Can be issued or redeemed freely
Maximum value 100000000000 (1e11) Maximum value 9999999999999999e80
Precise to the nearest "drop" (0.000001 XRP) 15 decimal digits of precision, with a minimum nonzero absolute value of 1000000000000000e-96

Caution: The XRP Ledger uses decimal math with different precision than typical floating-point numbers, so currency amounts are always presented as strings.

Specifying Currency Amounts

Some API methods require you to specify an amount of currency. Depending on whether you are dealing in the network's native XRP currency or other currency units (called issuances), the style for specifying it is very different.


Amounts of XRP are represented as strings. (XRP has precision equivalent to a 64-bit integer, but JSON integers are limited to 32 bits, so XRP can overflow if represented in a JSON integer.) XRP is formally specified in "drops", which are equivalent to 0.000001 (one 1-millionth) of an XRP each. Thus, to represent 1.0 XRP in a JSON document, you would write:


Do not specify XRP as an object.

Unit tests are permitted to submit values of XRP (not drops) with a decimal point - for example, "1.23" meaning 1.23 XRP. All other cases should always specify XRP in drops, with no decimal point: e.g. "1230000" meaning 1.23 XRP.


If you are specifying non-XRP currency (including fiat dollars, precious metals, cryptocurrencies, or other custom currency) you must specify it with a currency specification object. This is a JSON object with three fields:

Field Type Description
currency String - Currency Code Arbitrary code for currency to issue. Cannot be XRP.
value String Quoted decimal representation of the amount of currency. This can include scientific notation, such as 1.23e11 meaning 123,000,000,000. Both e and E may be used.
issuer String Unique account address of the entity issuing the currency. In other words, the person or business where the currency can be redeemed.

Caution: These field names are case-sensitive.

For example, to represent $153.75 US dollars issued by account r9cZA1mLK5R5Am25ArfXFmqgNwjZgnfk59, you would specify:

    "currency": "USD",
    "value": "153.75",
    "issuer": "r9cZA1mLK5R5Am25ArfXFmqgNwjZgnfk59"

Unit tests are permitted to submit amounts of non-XRP currencies as a slash-separated string in the format "amount/currency/issuer". All other cases should use the JSON object format above.

Specifying Currencies Without Amounts

If you are specifying a non-XRP currency without an amount (typically for defining an order book of currency exchange offers) you should specify it as above, but omit the value field.

If you are specifying XRP without an amount (typically for defining an order book) you should specify it as a JSON object with only a currency field. Never include an issuer field for XRP.

Finally, if the recipient account of the payment trusts multiple issuers for a currency, you can indicate that the payment should be made in any combination of issuers that the recipient accepts. To do this, specify the recipient account's address as the issuer value in the JSON object.

Currency Codes

There are two kinds of currency code in the XRP Ledger:

  • Three-character currency code. We recommend using all-uppercase ISO 4217 Currency Codes . However, any combination of the following characters is permitted: all uppercase and lowercase letters, digits, as well as the symbols ?, !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, *, <, >, (, ), {, }, [, ], and |. The currency code XRP (all-uppercase) is reserved for XRP and cannot be used by issued currencies.
  • 160-bit hexadecimal values, such as 0158415500000000C1F76FF6ECB0BAC600000000, according to the XRP Ledger's internal Currency Format. This representation is uncommon.

Specifying Time

The rippled server and its APIs represent time as an unsigned integer. This number measures the number of seconds since the "Ripple Epoch" of January 1, 2000 (00:00 UTC). This is like the way the Unix epoch works, except the Ripple Epoch is 946684800 seconds after the Unix Epoch.

Don't convert Ripple Epoch times to UNIX Epoch times in 32-bit variables: this could lead to integer overflows.