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Accounts in the XRP Ledger are identified by an address in the XRP Ledger's base58 format. The address is derived from the account's master public key, which is in turn derived from a secret key. An address is represented as a string in JSON and has the following characteristics:

  • Between 25 and 35 characters in length
  • Starts with the character r
  • Uses alphanumeric characters, excluding the number "0" capital letter "O", capital letter "I", and lowercase letter "l"
  • Case-sensitive
  • Includes a 4-byte checksum so that the probability of generating a valid address from random characters is approximately 1 in 232

There is also an X-address format that "packs" a destination tag into the address. These addresses start with an X (for Mainnet) or a T (for test networks). Exchanges and wallets can use X-addresses to represent all the data a customer needs to know in one value. For more information, see the X-address format site and codec.

The XRP Ledger protocol only supports "classic" addresses natively, but many client libraries support X-addresses too.

Any valid address can become an account in the XRP Ledger by being funded. You can also use an address that has not been funded to represent a regular key or a member of a signer list. Only a funded account can be the sender of a transaction.

Creating a valid address is a strictly mathematical task starting with a key pair. You can generate a key pair and calculate its address entirely offline without communicating to the XRP Ledger or any other party. The conversion from a public key to an address involves a one-way hash function, so it is possible to confirm that a public key matches an address but it is impossible to derive the public key from the address alone. (This is part of the reason why signed transactions include the public key and the address of the sender.)

Special Addresses

Some addresses have special meaning, or historical uses, in the XRP Ledger. In many cases, these are "black hole" addresses, meaning the address is not derived from a known secret key. Since it is effectively impossible to guess a secret key from only an address, any XRP possessed by black hole addresses is lost forever.

AddressNameMeaningBlack Hole?
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrhoLvTpACCOUNT_ZEROAn address that is the XRP Ledger's base58 encoding of the value 0. In peer-to-peer communications, rippled uses this address as the issuer for XRP.Yes
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrBZbvjiACCOUNT_ONEAn address that is the XRP Ledger's base58 encoding of the value 1. In the ledger, RippleState entries use this address as a placeholder for the issuer of a trust line balance.Yes
rHb9CJAWyB4rj91VRWn96DkukG4bwdtyThThe genesis accountWhen rippled starts a new genesis ledger from scratch (for example, in stand-alone mode), this account holds all the XRP. This address is generated from the seed value masterpassphrase which is hard-coded.No
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrNAMEtxvNvQRipple Name reservation black-holeIn the past, Ripple asked users to send XRP to this account to reserve Ripple Names.Yes
rrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrrn5RM1rHdNaN AddressPrevious versions of ripple-lib generated this address when encoding the value NaN using the XRP Ledger's base58 string encoding format.Yes

Address Encoding

Tip: These technical details are only relevant for people building low-level library software for XRP Ledger compatibility!


XRP Ledger addresses are encoded using base58 with the dictionary rpshnaf39wBUDNEGHJKLM4PQRST7VWXYZ2bcdeCg65jkm8oFqi1tuvAxyz. Since the XRP Ledger encodes several types of keys with base58, it prefixes the encoded data with a one-byte "type prefix" (also called a "version prefix") to distinguish them. The type prefix causes addresses to usually start with different letters in base58 format.

The following diagram shows the relationship between keys and addresses:

+Address Encodingbase58Checksum(4 bytes)Type Prefix0x00("r" in XRPL base58)AddressType Prefix (1 byte)AccountID (20 bytes)Checksum (4 bytes)Account ID(20 bytes)Master Public Key33 bytes (secp256k1)0xED + 32 bytes (Ed25519)SHA-256 twiceRIPEMD160 of SHA-256

The formula for calculating an XRP Ledger address from a public key is as follows. For the complete example code, see encode_address.js. For the process of deriving a public key from a passphrase or seed value, see Key Derivation.

  1. Import required algorithms: SHA-256, RIPEMD160, and base58. Set the dictionary for base58.

    'use strict';
    const assert = require('assert');
    const crypto = require('crypto');
    const R_B58_DICT = 'rpshnaf39wBUDNEGHJKLM4PQRST7VWXYZ2bcdeCg65jkm8oFqi1tuvAxyz';
    const base58 = require('base-x')(R_B58_DICT);
  2. Start with a 33-byte ECDSA secp256k1 public key, or a 32-byte Ed25519 public key. For Ed25519 keys, prefix the key with the byte 0xED.

    const pubkey_hex =
    const pubkey = Buffer.from(pubkey_hex, 'hex');
    assert(pubkey.length == 33);
  3. Calculate the RIPEMD160 hash of the SHA-256 hash of the public key. This value is the "Account ID".

    const pubkey_inner_hash = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(pubkey);
    const pubkey_outer_hash = crypto.createHash('ripemd160');
    const account_id = pubkey_outer_hash.digest();
  4. Calculate the SHA-256 hash of the SHA-256 hash of the Account ID; take the first 4 bytes. This value is the "checksum".

    const address_type_prefix = Buffer.from([0x00]);
    const payload = Buffer.concat([address_type_prefix, account_id]);
    const chksum_hash1 = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(payload).digest();
    const chksum_hash2 = crypto.createHash('sha256').update(chksum_hash1).digest();
    const checksum =  chksum_hash2.slice(0,4);
  5. Concatenate the payload and the checksum. Calculate the base58 value of the concatenated buffer. The result is the address.

    const dataToEncode = Buffer.concat([payload, checksum]);
    const address = base58.encode(dataToEncode);
    // rDTXLQ7ZKZVKz33zJbHjgVShjsBnqMBhmN